Coatings and thin films can be studied with surface analysis methods because their inherently small depth allows characterization of the surface composition, interface composition, and in-depth distribution of composition. This article describes principles and examples of common surface analysis methods, namely, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ion scattering spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. It also provides useful information on the applications of surface analysis.
S. Hofmann, Surface and Interface Analysis of Coatings and Thin Films, Surface Engineering, Vol 5, ASM Handbook, Edited By C.M. Cotell, J.A. Sprague, F.A. Smidt, Jr., ASM International, 1994, p 669–678, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001301
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ASM Handbook Volume 11A: Analysis and Prevention of Component and Equipment Failures
Volume 11A provides information and insights on the factors that determine the useful service life of engineering components and the likely timing and mode of failure.