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Coatings and thin films can be studied with surface analysis methods because their inherently small depth allows characterization of the surface composition, interface composition, and in-depth distribution of composition. This article describes principles and examples of common surface analysis methods, namely, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ion scattering spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. It also provides useful information on the applications of surface analysis.

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S. Hofmann, 1994. "Surface and Interface Analysis of Coatings and Thin Films", Surface Engineering, C.M. Cotell, J.A. Sprague, F.A. Smidt, Jr.

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