This article discusses the procedures used for pickling nickel and nickel alloys. Nickel alloys can be divided into four groups: high-nickel alloys, nickel-copper alloys, nickel-chromium alloys, and nickel-iron-chromium alloys. Alloys within each composition group that has similar surface conditions are pickled in the same solutions using the same procedures. The article discusses three different surface conditions for pickling these nickel alloys: bright annealed white surface requiring removal of tarnish by flash pickling; bright annealed oxidized surface requiring removal of a layer of reduced oxide, sometimes followed by a flash pickle to brighten; and black or dark-colored surface requiring removal...
Russell C. Buckley, Surface Engineering of Nickel and Nickel Alloys, Surface Engineering, Vol 5, ASM Handbook, Edited By C.M. Cotell, J.A. Sprague, F.A. Smidt, Jr., ASM International, 1994, p 864–869, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001314
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