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This article addresses surface cleaning, finishing, and coating operations that have proven to be effective for molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum, and niobium. It describes standard procedures for abrasive blasting, molten caustic processing, acid cleaning, pickling, and solvent and electrolytic cleaning as well as mechanical grinding and finishing. The article also provides information on common plating and coating methods, including electroplating, anodizing, and oxidation-resistant coatings.

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John A. Shields, Jr., 1994. "Surface Engineering of Refractory Metals and Alloys", Surface Engineering, C.M. Cotell, J.A. Sprague, F.A. Smidt, Jr.

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