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This article reviews cleaning and finishing operations that have proven to be effective on titanium, its alloys, and semi-fabricated titanium products. It explains how to remove scale, tarnish films, grease, and other soils and how to achieve required finishes and/or improve wear and oxidation resistance through the use of polishing, buffing, and wire brushing operations. The article also covers a wide range of surface modification and coating processes, including ion implantation, diffusion, chemical and physical vapor deposition, plating, anodizing, and chemical conversion coatings as well as sprayed and sol-gel coatings and laser and electron-beam treatments.

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A. Bloyce, P.H. Morton, T. Bell, 1994. "Surface Engineering of Titanium and Titanium Alloys", Surface Engineering, C.M. Cotell, J.A. Sprague, F.A. Smidt, Jr.

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