This article focuses on the ceramic coatings for ceramic and glass substrates. It describes the role of oxides in glazes and discusses the optical and appearance properties of various types of glazes, such as leadless glazes, lead-containing glazes, opaque glazes, and satin and matte glazes. The article provides information on the classification of pigments and the applications of ceramic coatings for decorations on ceramic and glass surfaces.
A catalyst must be designed to have high activity and selectivity. The chemical process being catalyzed should have high productivity within a specified reactor volume with high reaction rates for the desired reactions and low rates for undesired reaction pathways. This article reviews the most general catalyst preparation procedures: impregnation, ion exchange, and precipitation. It explains the various categorizations of carrier materials: active carriers such as alumina, silica-alumina, zeolites, titanium oxide, and carbon in powder or particulate form; inert carriers such as silica, in powder or particulate form; and structural supports such as the monoliths upon which catalyzed carders are deposited. The article also describes catalyst powder processing techniques for tableting, beading, extrusion, spray drying and honeycombing.