This article provides a detailed account of the various alkaline and acid plating baths used for electrolytic copper plating. Dilute cyanide and Rochelle cyanide baths, high-efficiency sodium and potassium cyanide baths, alkaline noncyanide copper plating baths, and alkaline copper pyrophosphate baths, are discussed. The article reviews acid plating baths such as copper sulfate bath and copper fluoborate bath. It also presents information on the surface preparation considerations, bath composition, and operating variables of copper plating as well as the equipment used.
Hard chromium plating is produced by electrodeposition from a solution containing chromic acid and a catalytic anion in proper proportion. This article presents the major uses of hard chromium plating, and focuses on the selection factors, plating solutions, solution and process control, equipment, surface preparation, and crack patterns and other characteristics of hard chromium plating. It offers recommendations for the design and use of plating racks, describes the problems encountered in hard chromium plating, and their corrective procedures. The article provides information on the removal of chromium plate from coated metals, recovery and disposal of wastes, and stopoff media for selective plating.