Steel Heat Treating Fundamentals and Processes
Normalizing of steel is a heat treating process that is often considered from both thermal processing and microstructural standpoints. In terms of thermal processing, normalizing is defined as heating of a ferrous alloy to a suitable temperature above the transformation range and then cooling it in air to a temperature substantially below the transformation range. This article provides information on the normalizing of carbon and alloy steels, and discusses the processes involved and the furnaces used in normalizing of steel forgings, bar and tubular products, and castings. It contains tables that list the typical normalizing temperatures for standard carbon and alloy steels and typical mechanical properties of selected carbon and alloy steels in hot-rolled, normalized, and annealed conditions.