The head on a golf club driver developed multiple cracks during normal use. The head was a hollow shell construction made from a titanium alloy. Analysis and additional investigation revealed a progressive failure that initiated on the interior surface of the face plate along a deep, concentric groove created during a press forming operation. It was also determined that atmospheric contamination occurred during the welding of the head, causing embrittlement, which may have also contributed to the failure. Recommendations were made addressing the problems that were observed.
Richard P. Baron, Raymond J. Claxton, Failure Analysis of a Titanium Golf Club Head, Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Vol 3, Edited By Larry Berardinis, ASM International, 2019, p 217–221, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001782
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