Failure Analysis and Mechanical Performance Evaluation of a Cast Aluminum Hybrid-Iron Golf Club Hosel
A commercial hybrid-iron golf club fractured during normal use. The club fractured through its cast aluminum alloy hosel. Optical analysis revealed casting pores through 20% of the hosel thickness. Mechanical properties were determined from characterization results, then used to construct a finite element model to analyze material performance under failure conditions. In addition, a full scale structural test was conducted to determine failure strength. It was concluded that the club failed not from ground impact but from a force reversal at the bottom of the downswing. Large moments generated during the downswing aggravated by manufacturing defects and stress concentration combined to create an overload condition.
Christopher A. Walton, Benjamin E. Nesbit, Henrique M. Candia, Zachary A. Myers, Wilburn R. Whittington, Tonya W. Stone, Failure Analysis and Mechanical Performance Evaluation of a Cast Aluminum Hybrid-Iron Golf Club Hosel, Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Vol 3, Edited By Larry Berardinis, ASM International, 2019, p 208–216, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001781
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