Failure of AISI type 321 stainless steel internal springs from newly manufactured lip seals on a shaft between a turbine power unit and a pump in a commercial aircraft secondary unit was investigated. Examination of the coils from two failed springs showed that both had failed by fatigue. The springs contained drawing defects that served as the fatigue crack initiation sites. It was recommended that the wire drawing process be investigated for various levels of steel cleanliness to predict the incidence of drawing defects at the wire surface. Stress analysis to determine the minimum tolerable defect size was also recommended.
Michael Neff, Failure of Stainless Steel Springs Used in an Oil Ring Lip Seal, Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Vol 1, Edited By Khlefa A. Esaklul, ASM International, 1992, p 401–405, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001118
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