Malleable iron possesses considerable ductility and toughness because of its combination of nodular graphite and a low-carbon metallic matrix. The desired formation of temper carbon in malleable irons has two basic requirements. First, graphite should not form during the solidification of the white cast iron, and second, graphite must also be readily formed during the annealing heat treatment. These two metallurgical requirements influence the useful compositions of malleable irons and the melting, solidification, and annealing procedures. There are two basic types of malleable iron: blackheart and whiteheart. This article considers only the blackheart type and describes the metallurgical factors...
Malleable Iron, Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys, Vol 1, ASM Handbook, By ASM Handbook Committee, ASM International, 1990, p 71–84, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001005
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