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This article aims to survey the factors controlling the weldability of carbon and low-alloy steels in arc welding. It discusses the influence of operational parameters, thermal cycles, and metallurgical factors on weld metal transformations and the susceptibility to hot and cold cracking. The article addresses the basic principles that affect the weldability of carbon and low-alloy steels. It outlines the characteristic features of welds and the metallurgical factors that affect weldability. It describes the common tests to determine steel weldability. There are various types of tests for determining the susceptibility of the weld joint to different types of cracking during fabrication, including restraint tests, externally loaded tests, underbead cracking tests, and lamellar tearing tests. Weldability tests are conducted to provide information on the service and performance of welds. The major tests that are discussed in this article are weld tension test, bend test, the drop-weight test, the Charpy V-notch test, the crack tip opening displacement test, and stress-corrosion cracking test.

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