Forgings are classified in various ways, beginning with the general classifications open die and closed die. They are also classified according to how they are made; such as hammer upset forgings, ring-rolled forgings, and multiple-ram press forgings; and in terms of the close-to-finish factor or amount of stock that must be removed to satisfy the dimensional and detail requirements of the finished part. In addition to types and classifications, the article discusses critical design factors and ways to ensure that the resulting forgings measure up to metallurgical, mechanical property, and dimensional accuracy requirements. The responsibility for design verification is vested in material control, which depends on the proper application of drawings, specifications, manufacturing process controls, and quality assurance programs. The article addresses each of these areas as well as related topics; including stress-induced fatigue failure, tolerances, machining allowances; and the fundamentals of hammer and press forgings, hot upset forgings, and hot extrusion forgings.
James A. Rossow, Closed-Die Forgings, Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys, Vol 1, ASM Handbook, By ASM Handbook Committee, ASM International, 1990, p 337–357, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001021
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