This article focuses on the properties of conventional wrought superalloys based on nickel, iron, and cobalt, as well as on the properties of alloys produced from powder. The powder metallurgy (P/M) category includes alloys that were originally developed as casting alloys; new alloy compositions developed specifically to benefit from powder processing; and oxide dispersion strengthened alloys (particularly those produced by mechanical alloying). The article discusses some of the applications of superalloys and emphazises the interplay between chemical composition, microstructure, consolidation method, mechanical properties and surface stability of wrought nickel alloys. Vacuum melting processes are a necessity for many nickel- and iron-nickel-base alloys because of the presence of aluminum and titanium as solutes. Cobalt-base alloys do not usually contain these elements and may be melted in air. An appendix to this article presents the property data and corresponding information on a family of cobalt-chromium-tungsten-carbon alloys that use P/M processing.
N.S. Stoloff, Wrought and P/M Superalloys, Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys, Vol 1, ASM Handbook, By ASM Handbook Committee, ASM International, 1990, p 950–980, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001049
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