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This article discusses the properties of threaded fasteners made from carbon and low-alloy steels containing a maximum of 0.55% carbon. It provides guidelines for the selection of steels for bolts, studs, and nuts intended for use at temperatures between -50 and 370 deg C. The article also discusses steels rated for service above 370 deg C and describes internationally recognized grade designations. The specifications provided can be used to outline fastener requirements, control manufacturing processes, and establish functional or performance standards. The most commonly used protective metal coatings for ferrous metal fasteners; zinc, cadmium, and aluminum; are described as well.

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