Two identical “D” tube package boilers, installed at separate plants, experienced a number of tube ruptures after relatively short operating times. The tubes, which are joined by membranes, experienced localized bulging and circumferential cracking along the fireside crown as a result of overheating and thermal fatigue. It was recommended that recent alterations to the steam-drum baffling be remodified to improve circulation in the boiler and prevent further overheating. Several thermocouples were attached to tubes in problem areas of the boiler to monitor the effects of the steam-drum modifications on tube wall temperatures.
Clifford C. Bigelow, Short-Term Failure of Carbon Steel Boiler Tubes, Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Vol 2, Edited By Khlefa A. Esaklul, ASM International, 1993, p 214–216, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001340
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