Chapter 2: Toughness
The toughness of a material is its ability to absorb energy in the form of plastic deformation without fracturing. It is thus a measure of both strength and ductility. This chapter describes the fracture and toughness characteristics of metals and their effect on component lifetime and failure. It begins with a review of the ductile-to-brittle transition behavior of steel and the different ways to measure transition temperature. It then explains how to predict fracture loads using linear-elastic fracture mechanics and how toughness is affected by temperature and strain rate as well as grain size, inclusion content, and impurities. It also presents the theory and use of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics and discusses the causes, effects, and control of temper embrittlement in various types of steel.
Toughness, Damage Mechanisms and Life Assessment of High-Temperature Components, By R. Viswanathan, ASM International, 1989, p 21–57, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490021
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