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ASM Handbook

Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials

By
ASM Handbook Committee
ASM Handbook Committee
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ASM International
Volume
2
ISBN electronic:
978-1-62708-162-7
Publication date:
1990
Book Chapter

Rare Earth Metals

By
K.A. Gschneidner, Jr.
K.A. Gschneidner, Jr.
Iowa State University
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;
B.J. Beaudry
B.J. Beaudry
Iowa State University
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;
J. Capellen
J. Capellen
Iowa State University
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Published:
1990
Page range:
720 - 732

Abstract

Rare earth metals belong to Group IIIA of the periodic table that includes scandium, yttrium, and the lanthanide elements which are lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium. This Article classifies the rare earth metals based on their purity level, which are designated as research grades (>99.8% pure) and commercial grades (95% - 98% pure), and describes the preparation and purification, including solid-state electrolysis. It further discusses physical, mechanical, and chemical properties; electronic configurations; crystal structures, and explains the alloy forming characteristics of rare earth elements. The Article concludes by describing the various applications of commercial-grade rare earth elements and commercial alloys, which incorporates rare earth elements as additives.

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K.A. Gschneidner, Jr., B.J. Beaudry, J. Capellen, 1990. "Rare Earth Metals", Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials, ASM Handbook Committee

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