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This Article discusses the processing, properties, and applications of various grades of lead and lead-base alloys with the aid of several tables and illustrations. It lists the Unified Numbering System (UNS) designations for various pure lead grades and lead-base alloys grouped according to nominal chemical composition. The properties of lead that make it useful in a wide variety of applications are also discussed. The largest usage of lead is in the lead acid storage batteries (in the grid plates, posts, and connector straps). Other applications include ammunition; cable sheathing; cast products such as type metals, terneplates, and foils; and building construction materials. Lead is also used as an alloying element in steel and in copper alloys to improve machinability and other characteristics. In many applications, lead is combined with stronger materials to make structures that have the best qualities of both materials such as the plumbum series.

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Anthony W. Worcester, John T. O'Reilly, Lead and Lead Alloys, Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials, Vol 2, ASM Handbook, By ASM Handbook Committee, ASM International, 1990, p 543–556,

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