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Germanium (Ge) is a semiconducting metalloid element found in Group IV A. Germanium is used in the field of electronics, infrared optics, and in the fields of gamma ray spectroscopy, catalysis, and fiber optics. This Article discusses the sources, manufacturing, and processing of germanium, and focuses on the chemical properties of various germanium compounds, including germanium halides, germanates, germanides, germanes, inorganic, and organogermanium compounds. It also tabulates the physical, thermal, electronic, and optical properties of germanium, and explains the economical aspects and specifications of germanium. The Article describes the analytical and test methods of germanium, including gravimetric method, titrimetric method, and spectral method. It provides a short note on toxicology, and concludes with the uses of germanium in different fields.

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J.H. Adams, Germanium and Germanium Compounds, Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials, Vol 2, ASM Handbook, By ASM Handbook Committee, ASM International, 1990, p 733–738,

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