Failure Analysis and Prevention (2021 Edition)
Visual examination, using the unaided eye or a low-power optical magnifier, is typically one of the first steps in a failure investigation. This article presents the guidelines for selecting samples for scanning electron microscope examination and optical metallography and for cleaning fracture surfaces. It discusses damage characterization of metals, covering various factors that influence the damage, namely stress, aggressive environment, temperature, and discontinuities.
Frauke Hogue, Microfractography and Metallography for Failure Analysis, Failure Analysis and Prevention, Vol 11, 2021 ed., ASM Handbook, Edited By Brett A. Miller, Roch J. Shipley, Ronald J. Parrington, Daniel P. Dennies, ASM International, 2021, p 92–104, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
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