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The solidification process has a major influence on the microstructure and mechanical properties of metal casting as well as wrought products. This appendix covers the fundamentals of solidification. It discusses the formation of solidification structures, the characteristics of planar, cellular, and dendritic growth, the basic freezing sequence for an alloy casting, and the variations in cooling rate, heat flow, and grain morphology in different areas of the mold. It also describes the types of segregation that occur during freezing, the effect of solidification rate on secondary dendrite arm spacing, and the factors that contribute to porosity and shrinkage.

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Fundamentals of Solidification, Phase Diagrams: Understanding the Basics, Edited By F.C. Campbell, ASM International, 2012, p 429–445,

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