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This chapter describes the physical characteristics, properties, and behaviors of solid solutions under equilibrium conditions. It begins with a review of a single-component pure metal system and its unary phase diagram. It then examines the solid solution formed by copper and nickel atoms. It discusses the difference between interstitial and substitutional solid solutions and the factors that determine the type of solution that two metals are likely to form. It also addresses the development of intermediate phases, the role of free energy, transformation kinetics, liquid-to-solid and solid-state phase transformations, and the allotropic nature of metals.

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Solid Solutions and Phase Transformations, Phase Diagrams: Understanding the Basics, Edited By F.C. Campbell, ASM International, 2012, p 15–39,

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