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Nanotechnology and smart-coating technologies have been reported to show great promise for improved performance in critical areas such as corrosion resistance, durability, and conductivity. This article exemplifies nanofilms and nanomaterials used in coatings applications, including carbon nanotubes, silica, metals/metal oxides, ceramics, clays, buckyballs, graphene, polymers, titanium dioxide, and waxes. These can be produced by a variety of methods, including chemical vapor deposition, plasma arcing, electrodeposition, sol-gel synthesis, and ball milling. The application of nanotechnology and the development of smart coatings have been dependent largely on the availability of analytical and imaging techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy.

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