Polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of repeating organic units joined by urethane linkages. Polyurethane polymers are formed through step-growth polymerization by making a monomer containing at least two isocyanate functional groups to react with another monomer containing at least two hydroxyl (alcohol) groups. This article provides a detailed account of the protective coatings used in the building, infrastructure, and architectural markets. It focuses on the various types of polyurethane coatings used in these applications: moisture-cure and two-pack aromatic coatings as primers and topcoats, moisture-cure aromatic elastomeric high-build coatings, moisture-cure aliphatic topcoats, two-pack aliphatic polyurethane coatings as topcoats, and one- and two-pack polyurethane dispersion coatings as sealers and topcoats. It also includes a section on the health effects of isocyanates.