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This chapter focuses solely on wear and fatigue fracture, which are the primary failure modes in hot and cold forging, respectively. The discussion covers the classification of die failures, summarizes the primary mechanisms of fatigue fracture and wear, provides information on analytical wear models that characterize adhesive and abrasive wear, and describes the parameters that influence die failure in cold and hot forging processes. The chapter also presents case studies where finite-element modeling was employed to predict die fatigue fracture and wear and enhance die life in cold and hot forging.

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Mark Gariety, Die Failures in Cold and Hot Forging, Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications, Edited By Taylan Altan, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, ASM International, 2005, p 295–317,

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