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The design and manufacture of dies and the selection of die materials are very important in the production of discrete parts by forging. The first section discusses the material properties of dies for hot forging and the corresponding failure mechanisms that they affect, such as maraging steels, superalloys, ceramic dies, and nickel aluminides. The second section focuses on die and tool materials for cold forging, mainly focusing on cemented carbides and describing the properties of each carbide class. The chapter also discusses the processes involved in die manufacturing, namely high-speed and hard machining, electrodischarge machining, and hobbing. Information on the special methods of surface treatments of die is also provided.

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Prashant Mangukia, Die Materials and Die Manufacturing, Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications, Edited By Taylan Altan, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, ASM International, 2005, p 277–293,

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