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Isothermal forging was developed to provide a near-net shape component geometry and well-controlled microstructures and properties with accurate control of the working temperature and strain rate. Isothermal forging, however, requires a large initial capital investment for equipment. Hot-die forging was developed to make some sacrifice in die temperature and net shape capability while lowering the initial investment. This chapter is a detailed account of the operating procedure, advantages, disadvantages, production techniques, and economic benefits of isothermal and hot-die forgings. The discussion provides information on the characteristics of high-temperature materials used, namely titanium and nickel alloys; and equipment and tooling such as die materials, die techniques, and lubrication part separation systems. Information on postforging heat treatment is also provided.

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Manas Shirgaokar, Gangshu Shen, Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging, Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications, Edited By Taylan Altan, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, ASM International, 2005, p 257–275,

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