Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications
The first section of this chapter focuses on the metallurgical principles, tooling used, and the types of cold forging, as well as the parameters influencing the process and related estimation methods. The discussion covers the process of lubricating billets of carbon and low-alloy steels and the estimation of load for flashless closed-die upsetting. Two of the most commonly used cold extrusions are subsequently described, covering the variables affecting forging load and energy. This section also describes the estimation of friction and flow stress in cold forging and the prediction of extrusion loads from selected formulas and model test. Various tools used for cold forging and the parameters affecting the tool life are then described, followed by an overview of the design process for punches, dies, and shrink fit used for cold forging. The second short section of this chapter provides information on warm forging and its advantages over cold forging.
Prashant Mangukia, Cold and Warm Forging, Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications, Edited By Taylan Altan, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, ASM International, 2005, p 211–235, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040211
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