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Commercial finite-element simulation software is gaining wide acceptance in the forging industry and is fast becoming an integral part of the forging design and development process. This chapter begins by outlining the main objectives of the numerical process design in forging, proven practical applications of process simulation in closed-die forging, and information flow in process modeling. This is followed by a section discussing process modeling input in terms of geometric parameters, process parameters, and material parameters. The characteristics of the simulation code in forging processes are then covered. The following section discusses the output of process modeling in terms of the metal flow, the distribution and history of state variables, the equipment response during forging, and the microstructure of the forging. The chapter ends with a few examples of modeling applications in metal forming processes.

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Manas Shirgaokar, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, Process Modeling in Impression-Die Forging Using Finite-Element Analysis, Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications, Edited By Taylan Altan, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, ASM International, 2005, p 193–209,

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