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In hot impression-die forging, forging load and die stresses are important variables that affect die life and determine the selection of press capacity. During the die design and process planning stage, it is necessary to estimate these variables to avoid unexpected die failure and provide for necessary forging load to fill the die cavity. Describing the effect of process parameters on forging load, this chapter provides information on four broadly defined methods used in estimating the maximum load in hot forging, namely applied experience, empirical methods, analytical methods, and numerical methods. In addition, information on a simplified model of impression-die forging that uses the slab analysis technique is provided. The chapter presents examples of ForgePAL that is used to calculate the forging load of impression-die forging.

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Hyunjoong Cho, A Simplified Method to Estimate Forging Load in Impression-Die Forging, Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications, Edited By Taylan Altan, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, ASM International, 2005, p 185–192,

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