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In impression-die forging, two or more dies are moved toward each other to form a metal billet that has a relatively simple geometry to obtain a more complex shape. This chapter discusses the factors influencing the forging process, namely characteristics of the available equipment; variables associated with the tooling and lubrication; and characteristics of the stock or preform to be forged, flow stress, stock temperature, and preform shape. It provides information on three main groups of forgings useful for practical purposes, namely compact shape, disc shape, and oblong shape. The chapter also describes the processes and factors involved in designing finisher dies. Various methods for estimating forging pressure and load are also provided. The chapter also presents preform design guidelines for carbon and low-alloy steel parts, aluminum alloy rib-web-type parts, titanium alloy rib-web-type parts, and H cross-section-type parts.

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Manas Shirgaokar, Process Design in Impression-Die Forging, Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications, Edited By Taylan Altan, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, ASM International, 2005, p 159–183,

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