Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications
Several special machines are used for the purpose of preforming the incoming stock. Some of these machines may also be used for finish forging. This chapter discusses the operating principles, equipment setup, applications, advantages, and disadvantages of special machines, namely transverse or cross-rolling machines, electric upsetters, ring-rolling mills, horizontal forging machines or upsetters, rotary or orbital forging machines, and radial forging machines.
Pinak Barve, Special Machines for Forging, Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications, Edited By Taylan Altan, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, ASM International, 2005, p 141–150, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040141
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