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This chapter is a detailed account of the metallurgical aspects and operational characteristics of presses and hammers used for hot and cold forging. The first section focuses on three types of presses, namely hydraulic, mechanical, and screw presses used for hot and cold forging. The discussion covers the drive systems of hydraulic press and load and energy requirements, time-dependent characteristics, and working accuracy of mechanical and screw presses as well as determination of dynamic stiffness of and variations in screw presses. The second section provides information on the important characteristics of gravity-drop hammers and power-drop hammers, along with computer-controlled hammers.

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Manas Shirgaokar, Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging, Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications, Edited By Taylan Altan, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, ASM International, 2005, p 115–139,

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