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In a practical sense, each forming process is associated with at least one type of forming machine. The forming machines vary in factors such as the rate at which energy is applied to the workpiece and the capability to control the energy. This chapter presents the interaction between the principal forming machine and process variables. It discusses the factors related to load and energy requirements in forming as well as the classification of forming machines. The chapter provides information on three significant characteristics of these machines, namely characteristics for load and energy, time-related characteristics, and characteristics for accuracy.

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Manas Shirgaokar, Principles of Forging Machines, Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications, Edited By Taylan Altan, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, ASM International, 2005, p 107–113,

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