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There are several different approximate methods, both analytical and numerical, for analyzing forging processes. This chapter briefly discusses the slab, upperbound, and the finite element methods. The discussion covers the basic principle, implementation, advantages, and disadvantages of these methods, as well as their applications to plane-strain and axisymmetric upsetting in metal forming.

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Manas Shirgaokar, Methods of Analysis for Forging Operations, Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications, Edited By Taylan Altan, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, ASM International, 2005, p 91–105,

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