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In forging, the flow of metal is caused by the pressure transmitted from the dies to the deforming workpiece. Therefore, the frictional conditions at the die/workpiece interface greatly influence metal flow, formation of surface and internal defects, stresses acting on the dies, and load and energy requirements. This chapter begins with a discussion on the basic types of lubrication that govern the frictional conditions in metal forming. This is followed by a section describing friction laws that can be utilized for expressing the interface friction quantitatively. Various parameters influencing the friction and lubrication conditions present at the die/workpiece interface in a forging operation are presented. Further, the chapter provides information on the selection of appropriate ferrous and nonferrous lubrication systems for cold and hot forging, detailing their characteristics and metallurgical aspects. It ends with a discussion on the test methods available for the evaluation of lubricants.

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Mark Gariety, Gracious Ngaile, Friction and Lubrication, Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications, Edited By Taylan Altan, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, ASM International, 2005, p 67–81,

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