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In metal forming processes, both plastic deformation and friction contribute to heat generation. Using accurate process modeling, the influence of press speed, contact time, and heat transfer in metal forming can be evaluated. This chapter begins by describing the fundamentals of heat generation and heat transfer in metal forming. It then provides information on temperature calculations and the factors influencing temperature conditions in forging operations, as well as on the measurement of temperatures at the die/material interface. Measurement of interface heat transfer coefficient for hot forging applications by two die and upset tests are also described. The chapter summarizes the influence of press speed and contact time on heat transfer between the workpiece and dies.

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Gangshu Shen, Temperature and Heat Transfer, Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications, Edited By Taylan Altan, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, ASM International, 2005, p 59–66,

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