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To be useful in metal forming analyses, the flow stresses of metals should be determined experimentally for the strain, strain rate, and temperature conditions that exist during the forming processes. This chapter focuses on the most commonly used methods for determining flow stress and forgeability of a metal, namely the tensile, uniform compression, ring, and torsion tests. Information on how to represent the flow stress data obtained from these tests is also provided. The chapter contains tables that summarize K and n values describing the flow stress-strain relation for various steels, aluminum alloys, and copper alloys. Tables also summarize C and m values describing the flow stress-strain rate relation for steels, aluminum alloys, copper alloys, titanium alloys, and other materials at various temperatures. Average flow stress values determined in the uniform and ring compression tests that might be used in practical applications are also listed.

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Manas Shirgaokar, Flow Stress and Forgeability, Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications, Edited By Taylan Altan, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, ASM International, 2005, p 25–49,

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