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Forging processes usually produce little or no scrap and generate the final part geometry in a very short time, usually in one or a few strokes of a press or hammer. The first part of this chapter considers forging processes as a system, providing information on material characterization, tooling variables, mechanics of interface friction, mechanics of deformation, and product geometry and properties. The second part summarizes the types of forging processes in a systematic way. The forging processes covered are closed/impression die forging with flash, closed/impression die forging without flash, electro-upsetting, forward extrusion, backward extrusion, radial forging, hobbing, isothermal forging, open-die forging, orbital forging, powder metal forging, upsetting, nosing, coining, and ironing. For each of these processes, the discussion is organized briefly under the following headings: definition, equipment, process variations, materials, and applications.

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Manas Shirgaokar, Forging Processes: Variables and Descriptions, Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications, Edited By Taylan Altan, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, ASM International, 2005, p 7–15,

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