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This chapter identifies the primary causes of service failures and discusses the types of defects from which they stem. It presents more than a dozen examples of failures attributed to such causes as design defects, material defects, and manufacturing or processing defects as well as assembly errors, abnormal operating conditions, and inadequate maintenance. It also describes the precise usage of terms such as defect, flaw, imperfection, and discontinuity.

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Common Causes of Failures, Failure Analysis of Engineering Structures: Methodology and Case Histories, By V. Ramachandran, A.C. Raghuram, R.V. Krishnan, S.K. Bhaumik, ASM International, 2005, p 5–17,

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