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Fabricated powder metallurgy (P/M) parts are evaluated and tested at several stages during manufacturing for part acceptance and process control. The various types of tests included are dimensional evaluation, density measurements, hardness testing, mechanical testing, and nondestructive testing. This chapter is a detailed account of these testing methods. It describes the four most common types of defects in P/M parts, namely ejection cracks, density variations, microlaminations, and poor sintering. The chapter discusses the capabilities and limitations of various nondestructive evaluation methods to flaw detection in P/M parts. The nondestructive evaluation methods covered are mechanical proof testing, metallography, liquid penetrant crack detection, filtered particle crack detection, magnetic particle crack inspection, direct current resistivity testing, x-ray radiography, computed tomography, gamma-ray density determination, and ultrasonic techniques.

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Inspection of Powder Metallurgy Parts, Inspection of Metals: Understanding the Basics, Edited By F.C. Campbell, ASM International, 2013, p 393–410,

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