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This chapter discusses radiography methods using x-rays, gamma rays, and neutrons. It begins with a discussion on the applications and principles of radiography followed by sections providing information on the sources of radiation, classifications, and characteristics of x-ray tubes. Three primary attenuation processes of electromagnetic radiation, namely photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, and pair production, are covered. The chapter then discusses the principles of shadow formation, the process involved in the conversion of radiation into a form suitable for observation, and the characteristics of x-ray film. It provides information on various exposure factors in film radiography. The chapter provides a description of the characteristics that differentiate neutron radiography from x-ray or gamma ray radiography. The application of neutron radiography is described in terms of its advantages for improved contrast on low atomic number materials, discrimination between isotopes, or inspection of radioactive specimens.

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Radiographic Inspection, Inspection of Metals: Understanding the Basics, Edited By F.C. Campbell, ASM International, 2013, p 233–266,

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