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This article discusses the composition and morphology of compacted graphite (CG) iron relative to that of gray and ductile iron. It explains that the graphite in CG iron is intermediate in shape between the spheroidal graphite found in ductile iron and the flake graphite in gray iron, giving it distinct advantages in a number of applications. The article also discusses the role of melt treatment elements and explains how alloying and heat treatment affect tensile strength, hardness, toughness, and ductility.

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2001. "Compacted Graphite Irons", Alloying: Understanding the Basics, J.R. Davis

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