This article covers the metallurgy and properties of gray irons. It describes the classes or grades of gray iron, the types of applications for which they are suited, and the corresponding compositional ranges. It discusses the role of major, minor, and trace elements, how they are added, and how they affect various properties, behaviors, and processing characteristics. It explains how silicon, chromium, and nickel, in particular, improve high-temperature, corrosion, and wear performance.
This article discusses the metallurgy and properties of ductile cast iron. It begins with an overview of ductile or spheroidal-graphite iron, describing the specifications, applications, and compositions. It then discusses the importance of composition control and explains how various alloying elements affect the properties, behaviors, and processing characteristics of ductile iron. The article describes the benefits of nickel and silicon additions in particular detail, explaining how they make ductile iron more resistant to corrosion, heat, and wear.