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Coatings and other surface modifications are used for a variety of functional, economic, and aesthetic purposes. Two major applications of thermal spray coatings are for wear resistance and corrosion resistance. This article discusses thermal (surface hardening) and thermochemical (carburizing, nitriding, and boriding) surface modifications, electrochemical treatments (electroplating, and anodizing), chemical treatments (electroless plating, phosphating, and hot dip coating), hardfacing, and thermal spray processes. It provides information on chemical and physical vapor deposition techniques such as conventional CVD, laser-assisted CVD, cathodic arc deposition, molecular beam epitaxy, ion plating, and sputtering.

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