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This article provides an overview of how thermal spray technology has adapted to meet the needs of the orthopaedic industry. It includes the challenges facing the development of artificial joints, substrate material selection criteria, thermal spray solutions, and clinical outcomes of thermal spray coatings. The article focuses on plasma thermal spray, which is the technique most often used to make porous titanium and hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings, such as thermal spray titanium, thermal spray HA, solution-precipitated HA, thermal spray chromium oxide, and thermal spray chromium carbide cermet coatings.

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Zongtao Zhang, Biomedical Coatings Made by Thermal Spraying for Orthopaedic Joint Applications, Thermal Spray Technology, Vol 5A, ASM Handbook, Edited By Robert C. Tucker, Jr., ASM International, 2013, p 306–311,

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