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The majority of currently used additive manufacturing (AM) processes are solidification based (SAM). Another class of AM processes consists of those that rely on deformation (DAM) to place material instead of solidification. Although SAM processes are much more widely used, as research and development continues in DAM processes, they are becoming increasingly attractive, especially for the AM of metals. This article discusses some of the more widely used DAM processes, namely ultrasonic additive manufacturing, cold spray process, and friction stir welding, focusing on their applications, advantages, and limitations.

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Robert J. Griffiths, Hang Yu, Chase Cox, Deformation Processes in Additive Manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing Processes, Vol 24, ASM Handbook, Edited By David L. Bourell, William Frazier, Howard Kuhn, Mohsen Seifi, ASM International, 2020, p 261–264,

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