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Powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM) processes are some of the most commonly used techniques, necessitating the accurate measurement of powder flowability properties. This article discusses some powder flow tests that occur in powder-bed AM machines. These include the Hall/Carney flow test, bulk/tap density, rheometer, and the revolving or rotating drum technique. The three categories of powder properties that are available from rheometer experiments are discussed: bulk, dynamic flow, and shear properties. The article also describes the basic principles and applications of micro-X-ray computed tomography in studying powder porosity characteristics nondestructively.

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Zheng Wu, Srujana Rao Yarasi, Amir Mostafaei, Anthony D. Rollett, Powder Characterization for Metal Additive Manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing Processes, Vol 24, ASM Handbook, Edited By David L. Bourell, William Frazier, Howard Kuhn, Mohsen Seifi, ASM International, 2020, p 172–179,

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